New JESLA article: Aptitude for Explicit and Implicit Learning

A new JESLA article, on aptitude for explicit and implicit learning, is published today. Details and link below.

Pavlekovic, R., & Roehr Brackin, K. (2024). Aptitude for Explicit and Implicit Learning. Journal of the European Second Language Association, 8(1), 1–17. DOI:


The present study examined the structure of and relationship between aptitude for explicit and implicit learning and working memory. Furthermore, we investigated to what extent these variables could predict second-language (L2) proficiency in terms of reading, listening and grammar knowledge. A total of 86 Croatian learners of English at advanced levels completed the LLAMA aptitude test suite, a probabilistic serial reaction time (SRT) task, operation span and forward digit span tasks, as well as grammar, reading and listening comprehension tests. Our factor-analytic results support a conceptual distinction between (1) working memory, (2) explicit aptitude and (3) implicit aptitude, while at the same time highlighting the multi-componential nature of implicit aptitude, with factor loadings of LLAMA D and SRT pulling in opposite directions. Regression analyses mirror this pattern of results: Whereas components of explicit aptitude, implicit aptitude and working memory significantly predicted L2 proficiency, LLAMA D, SRT and forward digit span emerged as negative predictors. We argue that these findings support a conceptualization of (implicit) aptitude as a cognitive proclivity rather than as a context-independent ability, in line with both current research and previously proposed multi-dimensional and dynamic perspectives of aptitude.